prepare a short talk about the following topic
"modern civilisation has kept changing at fast space
A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their parents thanks to the progress made in science and technology. But in practice, the outcome of this progress was slow to materialise. For instance, most people still used to travel long distances on foot or by stage coach. And as mechanisation was not introduced significantly in daily activities, household chores still had to be done manually, and were therefore time consuming.
On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social cohesion, since people had more opportunities to meet and interact. So they were able to chat with neighbors at shops or in clubs and have a cup of coffee with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise, family visits were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the grandparents who used to tell traditional tales or sing lullabies or folk songs to their grandchildren. Unfortunately, with the development of audiovisual means such as the cinema, radio, television and then personal appliances like the computer, CD-roms and DVDs, the chances of socialisation are dwindling and the lack of interaction between people may increase stress, loneliness and anxiety.
Could we then complain that we are missing out on some ingredients in life which used to make our great grandparents happier? This is probably so, since closer contacts among neighbours, friends and families had to be beneficial for communal harmony. However, scientific progress in all fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today quite fulfilling and, if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.
write an essay about the challenges faced by modern civilisation
There are three major threats to our civilisation, which can lead to the destruction of mankind. We have first nuclear energy, which has been a constant liability ever since the explosion of atomic bombs in 1945; there is also pollution, a major cause for concern with the massive and noxious increase in industrial activities and mechanisation; finally, climate change constitutes another threat, as an outcome of the first two mentioned problems.
The escalation of nuclear weaponry since World War Two has exposed humanity to a nuclear war that would not compare at all with Hiroshima and Nagasaki, since it could wipe out life on earth many times over. The Cold War was a period of tension between the two most heavily equipped nations in terms of nuclear warheads, the USA and the USSR. The Détente that came after did not suppress all worries, since other countries have the bomb, and could use it any time.
There are also indirect consequences to owning nuclear energy. Indeed, a lethal form of pollution can originate from it if accidents in nuclear power plants occur. But apparently less dangerous forms of pollution, generated by an ever- increasing industrialisation, can also cause severe illnesses and deaths. We can think of all the chemicals dumped by factories underground, or in rivers and seas, or of the enormous amounts of smoke emitted in the air by factories and vehicles. All of these are causing all sorts of illnesses in humans and threatening wildlife.
Apart from these direct consequences, the third threat to our civilisation, climate change, is directly related to the first two mentioned. Smoke has resulted in the greenhouse effect, responsible for the increase in mean temperature in the world. Consequently, the ice caps in the north and south poles are shrinking, the sea level is rising, rains have become irregular, hurricanes are more frequent, monsoons are more destructive, droughts have intensified, and have reached usually wet parts of the world. Therefore, the danger of famine is real , and can even lead to dramatic wars over the possession of the meagre resources remaining. Surely the impending threat of nuclear warfare, and the lethal chemicals spread in the environment make the world a dangerous place to live. The tons of smoke sent out in the atmosphere also constitute a health hazard, and are responsible for climate change. There are indeed urgent measures to be taken by governments to make human activities safer if our civilisation is to survive and thrive.
write an opinion article about counterfeiting disadvantages
Some people argue that counterfeiting benefits consumers by giving them access to lower-price goods. This is a totally mistaken claim. First, imitated goods are poor quality and do not last long. There is then no guarantee of value for money and more importantly, that fake goods are not safe. Imagine how much damage low quality parts fitted in a car can do to the driver and passengers when they fail!
Secondly, if we think of fake foods or medicines, and the criminal procedures used by the people who make them, we can only remain firm on buying genuine products. There are several cases of substitute edibles which have caused dangerous diseases to people and which have resulted in long-lasting law suits. The outcomes could only be compensations paid for irreparable damage but the moral damage caused to the victims can never be repaired! Recent figures released by the European Union show that the customs are confiscating 100 million fake items every year.
Thirdly, it is highly immoral to reap where other people have sown. Pirating products is indeed imitating other people’s property, and refusing to engage in a creative act. It is much more rewarding to turn one’s abilities to creating new objects of value that could serve the community, or improve the performance of existing ones.
Fourthly, pirating objects is by essence theft, especially when the producer of a fake item affixes the label of a well-known trade mark on it. Some countries are notorious for their practice of counterfeit objects. One wouldn’t like Algerians to be known for practising this dubious trade, as much as one wouldn’t like to see them buy cheap, fake products and head into unsuspected troubles.
write a letter to a friend describing your school
Today, I’ll write to you about my school. And the least I can say is that I feel quite happy and comfortable in it.
First, let me mention its old stone building, surrounded by a nice flower garden. The flowers are carefully arranged, and in spring, they give off a nice scent when we head for the classes through the garden. Further back, there are two large courtyards with enough space and benches to play or relax. There are also big, ancient olive trees near the walls, where birds perch and nest. We can hear them warble and chirp all year round.
Let me also describe my classroom. It is large and well decorated, with old-fashioned brown desks, and posters and pictures all over the walls. And then, there are those cabinets full of books which smell of old paper. Actually, I like borrowing a book from to time and dream of all the adventures and mysteries I read about.
I’ll finally say a few words about my teachers. I’m lucky to have such good and considerate people around me. They are so keen to see the students do well. They are always prepared to answer our questions, and they really want to make sure we understand the hard parts of the lessons and exercises. I like the way teachers get us involved. They surely have children of their own at school, which explains why they understand how we feel.
So if there is one good reason why I like my school, it surely is because the teaching staff are so caring, and so friendly. I can’t dream of a better school!
prepare a speech about the the possible changes that are likely to happen in our lifestyle
We may live a totally different life in the next few decades because modernity has brought with it a new life style. Nowadays people take less time to eat, go to fast food shops to gulp hamburgers, hot dogs and chips. In the future, we might have conventional food being replaced by food substitutes like pills, or we might get our nutrients out of crude oil; that would shorten meal times even further. Conversely, many people are prepared to spend more time shopping in supermarkets (and even on the Internet). A lot of them are now becoming shopaholics, buying products that they don’t really need. Their number will rise further in the near future.
This is partly because it is much easier to shop, especially as more and more supermarkets are equipped with fast serving cash desks which prevent long queues. In the future, shop assistants may be replaced by robots which could actually do the same job as them, with greater efficiency and in less time. That of course would probably have side effects like an increase in unemployment.
Leisure will also change, because of the development of all sorts of electronic devices, like the multimedia, cable television and other contrivances. People will be less tempted to go out for a film, a play or a concert. They’ll pay even less visits to each other because the cell phone is such a convenient way to keep in touch. And what to say about the Internet through which people can instantly chat with and watch each other via the web cam! Alternatively, we’ll have more free time to enjoy holidays at lower prices in distant places. But is this life of the future the kind of life people would like to have? Couldn’t modernity preserve social relations and be a means to an end rather than an end in itself?
Food safety has become one of the major worries for mankind. This worry has three major sources: the chemical contamination of agricultural products, the use of additives, preservatives and colourings in a large number of food products and the consumption of ready-made food.
Perhaps the first cause for worry about food safety is the highly intensive mode of farming and agribusiness now prevailing in industrialised countries. This has led big companies to use chemicals, fertilisers and pesticides to ensure maximum output. As a result, fruits and vegetables are contaminated by chemicals which may prove harmful to our health.
The second cause for concern is again related to mass production, and the need to keep products fresh and attractive. Consumer requirements have led manufacturers to introduce colourings, additives and preservatives. Some of them have been suspected of being dangerous while others have definitely been classified as harmful by independent research laboratories. Scientists maintain that some colourings and sugar substitutes can cause cancer, diabetes and other ****bolic disorders.
Finally, fast food and ready-made meals have led people to take undesirable eating habits, like nibbling at work or at home, or having frequent snacks in front of the computer or the TV set. More worrying is the fact that the younger generation are the most prone to consume fast food and soft drinks. These eating habits, as shown in “advanced” countries especially, have caused a large part of the population to become overweight or obese, and to develop diseases like diabetes or high blood pressure. These are due to an excess consumption of animal fat and fried food, as well as sugar and salt.
In conclusion, the conjunction of contaminated agricultural products, processed foods and poor eating habits is indeed a good reason to worry about food safety and to take corrective measures to change or improve our attitudes to eating.
a presentation of the moon
The Moon is an earth satellite orbiting our planet from a distance of 384,000kms on average, and its orbit is in a west-to-east direction. Its surface gravity is only 0.16 that of the Earth (one sixth), and it does not seem to have life on it, since it has neither atmosphere nor water. Minimum and maximum temperatures on it are wide apart, with +110˚C on the sunlit side and –170˚C in lunar nights. The geology of this satellite is rock only, and its age is about 4,6 billion years.
Plans to reach the Moon on space crafts have been on scientists’ minds since early 20th century. But they became more concrete when the Russians launched space crafts Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 in 1957, the second one carrying dog Laika. In 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth, followed by the American astronaut John Glenn in 1962. Finally, America won the honour of reaching the Moon before Russia, when Neil Armstrong set foot on it on July 21st 1969.
There are at present plans to build a space base on the Moon, to set a giant telescope and launch space ships from there to distant planets, and perhaps to other solar systems.
what would happen if a comet collided with the earth ???
I sometimes think with awe about the possible consequences for life on earth if a comet collided with our planet. I can imagine it hurtling through the atmosphere before it makes its terrible impact on some part of a continent. Scientists do say that a similar incident took place many thousand years ago, and provoked the extinction of many giant animal species, including dinosaurs.
An enormous crater would form, and possibly cause a volcanic eruption which would send a heavy layer of particles and ash high up in the sky to stop the sun rays from reaching the Earth. Our planet would then be in the dark for many years, and consequently the temperatures would drop considerably.
A change in the climate could indeed occur, rainfalls and snowfalls would be frequent, heavy and long lasting, and floods would result from them; the sea level would probably rise, and cause some flat regions of the Earth to be totally immersed.
Another possible consequence of the impact would be a gigantic earthquake which would destroy many inhabited areas and kill a huge number of people. If the impact were near an ocean, a tsunami could develop and flood vast areas of flat land, causing many people to die or become homeless.
Facts in the past have shown that a disaster like an impact of a heavenly body on Earth could destroy life, or at least alter living conditions dramatically. The same could be repeated if another collision occured. This is why scientists are thinking up space programmes to find ways of preventing another accident of this kind.
A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun as seen from Earth, and can happen only at new Moon. During a total eclipse the Sun’s corona can be seen. A total solar eclipse can last up to 7.5 minutes. When the Moon is at its farthest from the Earth it does not completely cover the face of the Sun, leaving a ring of sunlight visible. This is an annular eclipse. Between two and five solar eclipses occur each year but each is visible only from a specific area. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth, becoming dim until emerging from the shadow. Lunar eclipses may be partial or total, and they can happen only at full Moon. Total lunar eclipses last up to 100 minutes; the maximum number each year is three.
A total solar eclipse visible from southwestern England took place on 11 August 1999 and lasted for two minutes. This was the first total solar eclipse to be visible from the UK since 1927, the next will be in 2090.
imagine you are an agony aunt givin advice for teenagers about the panic that comes with the baccalaureate exam
I’m very sorry to hear that you are having difficulty coping with stress and anxiety, due to the forthcoming final examination. I more than sympathise with your being depressed. Let me tell you however that taking a few commonsense steps would restore confidence and cheerfulness in you.
I think you are working too hard, and not taking enough time for breaks. Do you know that cramming and doing exercises endlessly produce more anxiety in you? That’s why you don’t feel you have time to spare for your friends, and to enjoy some of the pleasures of life you are entitled to.
So, as I said, you should relax and sleep regularly, meanwhile leaving your brain to process the hardest points of lessons and activities. You should go out for walks or practise some sport everyday to help you relax. You ought not to worry constantly about the time when your exam occurs, lest you would lose your concentration on the appointed day.
Think that after all, you have reached a good level of competence, and that you have enough strategies at this stage to decide how to organise your work. Let me tell you again that when the exam comes, always start with the things you can do easily and leave time for the most tricky parts.
I’m sure that when the time comes, you will be able to overcome your stress and perform quite successfully.
I wish you all the best.
describe the feelings and emotions expected from algerian in various situations
The death of a close friend or a relative, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an accident, and other fatalities are likely to generate different feelings and emotions in people.
Actually the difference in reaction is more particularly a question of gender. Men will tend to hide their grief over the death of somebody they know, or their awe when they witness a tragedy; during a natural disaster, they will try not to panic and control their emotions; instead, they will react by taking steps to protect their families and neighbours. Women will show their emotions more openly. They will express their sadness and mourning, and cry profusely when they learn about a relative’s death. Likewise, they will be rather shocked and terrified when they see an accident in which there are casualties. Finally, they are likely lose their self- control, and fail to take the right decisions to protect themselves in an emergency.
The difference in response regarding the expression of love and affection will most likely follow the same pattern. Men always try to avoid excessive sentimentality. They generally avoid showing in verbal manner too much emotion and feelings to their families and friends; they will express their care in a different way; for instance by showing concern, offering help or giving presents. Women are again prone to showing their feelings more openly. They would more often than not use terms of endearment, and they often hug and kiss family members, especially children.
The differing levels of sensitivity between men and women concerning the facts of life is probably the reason why their marks of sympathy and affection are dissimilar. But the male and female attitudes are complementary, and both necessary for good human interaction
Ethics is principles and moral values. it’s also ethics is the set of moral rules that the professionals in any field are expected to respect when they deal either with each other or with the public. in business, ethics represents the attitudes that individuals and firms should comply with in the actions they perform and the decisions they take at every level of their realizations. Such a philosophy does not exist everywhere because it needs the existence of important conditions to apply it.
in societies where both political and cultural conditions exist for making everyone obey this practice, the main principles that those engaged in the economic branches should follow involve a good number of the qualities that have always served as the basis for civilization. Among them we find the obligation to be honest and lawful in one's activities.
In general, corruption leads to harm the public interest and reflect the phenomenon of corruption, a set of behaviors (bribery, nepotism ... .. Paloasitp extortion ... ... .. smuggling looted public money and ...).. There are many reasons behind the emergence of the phenomenon of corruption and spread in the community although there is almost unanimous on the fact that this phenomenon of human behavior, negative driven by self-interest and corruption leads to the loosening of moral values and to the frustration and the spread of indifference and passivity among the members of the community, and the rise of intolerance and extremism in views and the spread of crime as a reaction The collapse of values and lack of equal opportunities. In view of what can be inflicted by corruption of the damage is not at the local level but also at the international level, especially in light of the trend towards free trade and free competition requires all of us try to control but seems that the rampant corruption that fits many parts of the strata of society, even the citizen a free fair may bribing or Smuggled when needy, although it has long complained of corruption and its effects, then we are in a vicious circle not resolve it, but that one come back to the teachings of our religion by telling us altruism, integrity, honesty and sincerity and conviction, but it is impossible not all what he loves to realize.
bribery is the crime of giving or receiving something of value to influence official action. both the person giving and receiving the bribe are guilty of bribery.
bribery is illegal for two reasons: firstly, it usually involves a public official using his or her office for personal gain. Secondly, it can cause officials to make unfair decisions that affect citizens.
Bribery is a very old crime. There is evidence of bribery dating back more than 4,000 years. Usually, a person who bribes a public official is paying to get special treatment. this special treatment can come in many forms .for example ,a company might bribe an official to win a government contract .bribing a public official is the most common type of bribery. in the united states, officials convicted of bribery may be fined, removed from office, and sent to prison for up to 20 years.
Commercial bribery, the bribery of owners or employees of private companies, is also illegal in many places, but it is less commonly punished. No one knows how often people commit bribery, but many experts believe that most people who bribe officials are never caught.
Bribery is most common in some countries or parts of countries than in others.
Many countries have made it illegal to bribe officials from other countries
1حضارة بلاد مابين النهرين
'Mesopotamia or Mesopotamia (in Greek: Μεσοποταμία, ie Mesopotamia) Mesopotamia is located in southwestern Asia. Was among the first centers of civilization in the world. It is located now in Iraq between the Tigris and the Euphrates. The most famous are the civilizations of Sumer and Babylon, and I barely, Assyrians, Chaldeans, which originated from Iraq. With a booming civilizations in Mesopotamia and in times of simultaneous and successive been the occupation of land adjacent ranking the east parts of Iran and specifically Elam (now the province of Khuzestan, known as Arab Stan) and occupied the west and Syria to reach Palestine, where the Babylonian exile in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. After the death of Nebuchadnezzar passed the Mesopotamia civilization in the era of decadence while arisen forces civilization Persians Vtm occupation of Babylon and beyond Babylon by Cyrus and become Kotaisfon (now known as the cities) southeast of Baghdad, the capital of the horse came up the Islamic conquest at the hands of Omar bin al-Khattab. With the passage of the years under the banner of Islam, Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid caliphate, which was considered the golden generation of Islam. In 1919, Iraq announced the emergence of self-rule to the state after independence from Ottoman rule
2 الحضارة المصرية - نهر النيل-
The River Nile, which revolves around ancient Egyptian civilization Npa over the hills of Ethiopia in East Africa and the headwaters of the Nile in southern Sudan, traveling from north Sudan to Egypt to the flood comes every year to feed the soil with silt. This phenomenon is natural flood Egypt's economy has made a renewed sleep dependent mainly on agriculture. It helped the emergence of civilization. The abundance of water could flood them Ivimon network for irrigation, agriculture and manufactured boat traffic, transport and fishing river. And gave them the land precious metals and gems such as gold, silver and copper. They exchange goods with neighboring countries. The ancient Egyptians Balgdid work innovative and startling creativity to the world both in the embalming (article), music, sculpture, literature, painting, architecture and pyramids found reflect the greatness of Architecture, the ancient Egyptians and in ancient Egypt, the King is the absolute ruler and spiritual leader and the link between the people and the gods. He was supported by the minister and the administrative system and its priests and religious belief played a big role in their lives and have had their impact on the art and thoughts about life in the Hereafter ..
* Romanian civilization:
- I stayed the Romanian State nearly a thousand years, about five centuries before the birth of Christ, peace be upon him, and five after the birth. Named after the labeled rate of capital out of Rome and its civilization, Rome has expanded in the sixth century BC, Vsitrt all over Italy and then on the Greek cities and then on the Balkan Peninsula, and Asia Minor and the Levant and Egypt and extended its control over Carthage in Tunisia.
- Romanian tradition known civilization of manifestations of Greek civilization building sea theaters and terraces, bridges and arches, houses and excelled in carving statues and pictures, comedy and literature flourished in it.
* Roman history through three stages:
Phase I: Foundation Stage and the European Union (735 BC. M - 27 BC). And its capital Rome.
Second stage: the stage of expansion and influence (27 BC. M - 395 m) with which the Romans managed to create an empire stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Euphrates basin in the east.
The third stage: the stage of weakness and disintegration, with the emergence of the Germanic tribes in the political arena in Europe.
- Following that, the Theodosius in AD 395, dividing the empire into two parts: the west and the capital Rome, and the eastern capital of Constantinople (the State of the Byzantines). Western fell in 476 AD and fell in the second in 1453.
* After the division of the Romanian Empire into an Eastern and Western Empire fell at the hands of western Germanic tribes from the north 476 years old.
التلوث the Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of substances or energy into the environment, resulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resources and ecosystems, and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment. The major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common examples include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Water pollution via surface runoff and leaching to groundwater. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Radioactive contamination, added in the wake of 20th-century discoveries in atomic physics. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.) Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste. Thermal Pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence.